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Download Age Of Empires 3 Rip Full 138 Commerce Renaissance [PATCHED]

Philippe le Bel issued several prohibitory enactments also in the interestof home commerce and local industry, which Louis X. confirmed. Philippe leLong attempted even to outdo the judicious efforts of Louis XI., andtried, though unsuccessfully, to establish a uniformity in the weights andmeasures throughout the kingdom; a reform, however, which was neveraccomplished until the revolution of 1789. It is difficult to credit howmany different weights and measures were in use at that time, each onevarying according to local custom or the choice of the lord of the soil,who probably in some way profited by the confusion which this uncertainstate of things must have produced. The fraud and errors to which this ledmay easily be imagined, particularly in the intercourse between one partof the country and another. The feudal stamp is here thoroughly exhibited;as M. Charles de Grandmaison remarks, "Nothing is fixed, nothing isuniform, everything is special and arbitrary, settled by the lord of thesoil by virtue of his right of justesse, by which he undertook theregulation and superintendence of the weights and measures in use in hislordship."

Download Age Of Empires 3 Rip Full 138 commerce renaissance

For a long time the French, through indolence or antipathy--for it wasmore to their liking to be occupied with arms and chivalry than withmatters of interest and profit--took but a feeble part in the trade whichwas carried on so successfully on their own territory. The nobles wereashamed to mix in commerce, considering it unworthy of them, and thebourgeois, for want of liberal feeling and expansiveness in their ideas,were satisfied with appropriating merely local trade. Foreign commerce,even of the most lucrative description, was handed over to foreigners, andespecially to Jews, who were often banished from the kingdom and asfrequently ransomed, though universally despised and hated.Notwithstanding this, they succeeded in rising to wealth under the stigmaof shame and infamy, and the immense gains which they realised by means ofusury reconciled them to, and consoled them for, the ill-treatment towhich they were subjected.

Notwithstanding the statutes so carefully compiled and revised by EtienneBoileau and his successors, and in spite of the numerous arbitrary ruleswhich the sovereigns, the magistrates, and the corporations themselvesstrenuously endeavoured to frame, order and unity were far from governingthe commerce and industry of Paris during the Middle Ages, and what tookplace in Paris generally repeated itself elsewhere. Serious disputescontinually arose between the authorities and those amenable to theirjurisdiction, and between the various crafts themselves, notwithstandingthe relation which they bore to each other from the similarity of theiremployments.

Long before the commencement of the Merovingian era, the family, whosesphere of action had at first been an isolated and individual one, becameincorporated into one great national association, which held officialmeetings at stated periods on the Malberg (Parliament hill). Theseassemblies alone possessed supreme power in its full signification. Thetitles given to certain chiefs of rex (king), dux (duke), graff(count), brenn (general of the army), only defined the subdivisions ofthat power, and were applied, the last exclusively, to those engaged inwar, and the others to those possessing judicial and administrativefunctions. The duty of dispensing justice was specially assigned to thecounts, who had to ascertain the cause of quarrels between parties and toinflict penalties. There was a count in each district and in eachimportant town; there were, besides, several counts attached to thesovereign, under the title of counts of the palace (comites palatii), anhonourable position, which was much sought after and much coveted onaccount of its pecuniary and other contingent advantages. The counts ofthe palace deliberated with the sovereign on all matters and all questionsof State, and at the same time they were his companions in hunting,feasting, and religious exercises; they acted as arbitrators in questionsof inheritance of the crown; during the minority of princes they exercisedthe same authority as that which the constitution gave to sovereigns whowere of full age; they confirmed the nominations of the principalfunctionaries and even those of the bishops; they gave their advice on theoccasion of a proposed alliance between one nation and another, on mattersconnected with treaties of peace or of commerce, on military expeditions,or on exchanges of territory, as well as in reference to the marriage of aprince, and they incurred no responsibility beyond that naturally attachedto persons in so distinguished a position among a semi-barbarouscommunity. At first the legates (legati), and afterwards the King'sambassadors (missi dominici), the bishops and the dukes or commanders ofthe army were usually selected from the higher court officials, such asthe counts of the palace, whereas the ministeriales, forming the secondclass of the royal officials, filled inferior though very honourable andlucrative posts of an administrative and magisterial character.

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